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The prospective within the attract are the necessity for an age-appropriate dimension out-of strength right for teenagers and you may teenagers

Short Type RS-14

When looking for a good and you will valid means, besides you'll indiancupid promo kodları need for additional communities also where in actuality the advised basis build is going to be confirmed, a couple of biggest specifications was basically in the attract. “The fresh new RS-fourteen reveals brand new brevity, readability, and you will ease of rating that have been identified as very important services when deciding on instruments to be used with adolescents” (Pritzker and you may Minter, 2014, p. 332). The fresh new RS-fourteen “may also bring details of brand new pattern and profile out-of strength utilizing an available everywhere measure of resilience which usually permit reviews which have early in the day and you will future lookup,” and this “offers help proof that it's an effective psychometrically sound size to evaluate personal resilience from inside the a long time out-of teenagers and young adults” (Wagnild, 2009a; Pritzker and you can Minter, 2014).

Additionally, Yang et al

Finding far more financial variation of one's Resilience Size, coming down end go out, and designing more particularly for have fun with which have young people, Wagnild (2009a) altered the fresh new RS-twenty-five to14 points. The newest short-term “RS-fourteen scale contains fourteen thinking-report activities mentioned with each other an effective 7-area score size anywhere between ‘1-strongly disagree' so you can ‘7-strongly agree.' Highest score is a sign off strength top. According to people, scores are determined of the a realization out-of response philosophy each goods, therefore providing results to help you range between 14 so you're able to 98.” Ratings lower than 65 indicate lower resilience; between 65 and 81 show average strength; above 81 might be translated just like the highest quantities of resilience (Wagnild and Younger, 1993; Wagnild, 2009b, 2014).

Using principal components analyses supported a single-factor solution; remaining in the RS-14 scale were those items with all item factor loadings >0.40. Reported psychometric properties of the RS-14 have demonstrated sound psychometric properties comparable to those of the RS-25: evidence of a one-factor structure was found and high reliability (coefficient Cronbach's alpha = 0.90 and greater 0.96) and a strong correlation with the full version (r = 0.97, p = 0.001) were obtained (Wagnild, 2014). The overall factorability of the RS-14 demonstrated a robust one-factor measure of resilience, which has been replicated and has been confirmed in different studies and in the adaptations of this version for different countries (Wagnild, 2014). For instance: German ? = 0.91 (Schumacher et al., 2005); Portugal ? = 0.82 (Oliveira et al., 2015); Finland ? = 0.87 (Losoi et al., 2013); Japan ? = 0.88 (Nishi et al., 2010); China ? = 0.92 (Tian and Hong, 2013); Korean ? = 0.90 (Kwon and Kwon, 2014); Spain ? = 0.79 (Heilemann et al., 2003); Italian ? = 0.88 (Callegari et al., 2016); and Greek ? = 0.89 (Ntountoulaki et al., 2017). (2012) “examined the measurement invariance of the RS?14 in samples of U.S., Chinese, and Taiwanese college students and supported a one-factor model that demonstrated scalar invariance across cultures” (Yang et al., 2012). The short version RS-14 has been tested regarding its structure and it was found that results are not always totally consistent. Some discrepancies exist between findings of different studies; for instance the Brazilian version with 13 items (Damasio et al., 2011) or 12 items in the Portuguese adaptation for adolescents (Oliveira et al., 2015), and in the German Version 11 items (Schumacher et al., 2005). These discrepancies can eventually result from sampling issues: some studies used participants from very different developmental phases (Damasio et al., 2011), and others used participants <13 years old, an option that is not appropriate given that the authors of the RS advise against the use of the scale with participants from earlier ages (Wagnild, 2009b; Pritzker and Minter, 2014).

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